1) Vaclav Smil (2003), The Earth’s Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics, and Change, MIT Press (ISBN 978-0-262-69298-4), p.107. Text available on Google Books.
2) Margaret Kriz Hobson (2016). Melting Permafrost Could Affect Weather Worldwide; It’s not just releasing greenhouse gases—it may also alter the ocean’s chemistry and circulation patterns.” Scientific American, December 1, 2016.
3) Andrea Thompson (2012). “What is a Carbon Sink?”, Livescience.com, December 21, 2012.
4) Climate Analytics (2015). “Global warming reaches 1°C above preindustrial, warmest in more than 11,000 years”.
5) Extremely Bad Weather: Studies start linking climate change to current events”, Science News, Vol.182, No.10: November 17, 2012.
1) DRAWDOWN, Page 142
2) For information on Carbon Pricing in Canada, see Ecofiscal.ca, a group of non-partisan economists discussing various types of political responses and geo-economic considerations, as well as the book, “The Case for a Carbon Tax”, by Shi-Ling Hsui
3) See the movie, “An Inconvenient Truth Sequel, Truth to Power,” story of Al Gore at the Paris 2015 COP, produced by Jeff Skoll
5) United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Press Release https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/session48/pr_181008_P48_spm_en.pdf, 8 October 2018&
6) The Price of Carbon, Maenz, Dr. David, One Ton Press, 2017, Chapter 5, section 5.4 Emissions Reduction Pathways in the Transportation Sector, page 164-172
7) DRAWDOWN: the most comprehensive plan ever proposed to reverse global warming, (Project Drawdown), Edited by Paul Hawken, Penguin, New York, 2017, Section 6 TRANSPORT pages 136-156 (covering Mass Transit, High-Speed Rail, Ships, Electric Vehicles, Ride-sharing, Electric Bikes, Cars, Airplanes, Trucks, Telepresence, and Trains, respectively.
8) Conference of the Parties (COP) 2015, Paris Report, https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/conferences/past-conferences/paris-climate-change-conference-november-2015/cop-21
1) Center for Clean Energy Policy, “Success Stories in Building Energy Efficiency”
4) ASHRAE and the Green Building Council also offer training exams leading to professional certification. Members are then involved in appraising other proposals for new buildings. See https://new.usgbc.org/credentials
5) “Efforts to Make Buildings Greener are not Working,” The Economist, Jan 5, 2019.
6) The Economist, op.cit.
7) United Nations Population Division 2009, “World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 revision.”
8) Our World in Data, “Extreme Poverty is Falling: How is Poverty Changing for Higher Poverty Lines?”
9) International Monetary Fund, //Finance and Development//, Sept. 2007. Vol. 44, No. 3. The connection between affluence and urbanization is explored in Doug Saunders, Arrival City: The Final Migration and Our Next World (Random House, 2010).
10) World Bank, World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 417 pages.
11) United Nations Climate Action Summit 2019, “Cities and Pollution Contribute to Climate Change”.
12) World Bank, Cities and Climate Change: An Urgent Agenda (Washington, D.C. 2010); see also International Energy Agency (IEA) 2008, World Energy Outlook, Paris, 2008; 569 pages).
13) David Owen, Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are the Keys to Sustainability (New York: Penguin, 2010).
14) A. Ramaswami, T Hillman, B, Janson, M. Reiner and G. Thomas,”A Demand-centred, Hybrid Lifecycle Methodology for City-scale Greenhouse Gas Inventories,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 42, No.17, pp. 6455-6461.
15) Daniel Hoornweg, Lorraine Sugar, and Claudia Lorena Trejos Gomez, “Cities and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Moving Forward.” Sage Publications, Environment and Urbanization 2011, Vol. 23 (1): 207-227.
16) T. R. Oke, “Urban Climates and Global Environmental Change,” in R.D Thompson, and A. Perry (eds.) Applied Climatology: Principles & Practices, New York: Routledge, 1997, pp. 273-287.
17) T.R. Oke, Boundary Layer Climates, New York, Routledge, 1987.
18) “Atlanta is Home to Largest Permeable Pavers Project in US”, news.wabe.org, 2015
19) Michael Pooler in IJMuiden, “Cleaning up Steel is Key to Tackling Climate Change”, Financial Times series on climate control, Jan 1, 2019.
21) Paul Dowsett in his video conversation with Metta Spencer, “Sustainable Buildings”, April 15, 2019.
22) David Moore, US Dep. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Upper Colorado Region “The Riddle of Ancient Roman Concrete”, Feb. 1993.
23) Lucy Rodgers, “Climate Change: The Massive CO2 emitter You May not Know About.” BBC Science and Environment, Dec. 17, 2018
24) Doug Pelton, “One Ton of Portland Cement Produces a Ton of CO2 Emissions; Can Alternatives Reduce That by 97 Percent?” Earth Maven, Aug. 20, 2014.
25) Juan Rodriguez, “Uses, Benefits, and Drawbacks of Fly Ash in Construction”, The Balance Small Business, Feb. 17, 2019.
26) Paul Hawken, ed. Drawdown: The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming, New York: Penguin, 2017, pp 162-63. See also http://a.co/dZCBPIM
27) Britt Faulstick, Drexel University, Engineers Develop Cement With 97 Percent Smaller Carbon Dioxide and Energy Footprint
28) Pilkington Architects, UK and Ireland. “Glass and the Environment”.
29) “Curtain Wall Versus Window Wall: What’s the Difference?” Lenmak Architecture Design Advice. See also the video discussion with Paul Dowsett and Michael Yorke, “Sustainable Buildings,” op. cit.
30) Naturally:Wood, https://www.naturallywood.com/emerging-trends/mass-timber
31) Paul Dowsett and Michael Yorke, “Sustainable Buildings,” op cit.
2) Paul Hawken, Amory B. Lovins, L. Hunter Lovins, Natural Capitalism. 2nd Edition. 2010.
3) Paul Hawken, ed, DRAWDOWN: The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming
1) Government of Canada, “Food Guide Canada,” Jan 2019.
2) Richard Young, “Claims Against Meat Fail to Consider Bigger Picfture”, Resilience, originally published by Sustainable Food Trust) June 22, 2018.
3) Rainforest Action Network, “Conflict Palm Oil”
5) Tom Philpott and Julia Lurie, “Here’s the Real Problem with Almonds,” The New Republic, Dec. 31, 2016.
7) For a video showing this procedure, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP4UMYBEyzY
8) Aerin Einstein-Curtis, “Canadian Start-up Turns to Bugs to Recycle Food Waste into Feed”, Feed Navigator.com See also, Thomas Suen, “Essence of Cockroach”, Reuters, Aug 10, 2018
10) Annika Carlsson-Kanyama, “Climate Change and Dietary Choices: How Can Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Food Consumption be Reduced?” Food Policy, Vol. 23,NO/3/4, pp. 277-293, 1998.
12) Josh Gabbatiss, https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/rice-farming-climate-change-global-warming-india-nitrous-oxide-methane-a8531401.html|“Rice farming up to twice as bad for climate change as previously thought, study reveals”]], The Independent, Sept. 10, 2018.
13) Wikipedia, “Millet”, viewed 28 May 2019.
14) Poore and T. Nemecek, “Reducing Food’s Environmental Impacts Through Producers and Consumers”, Science, 01 June 2018. Vol. 360, Issue 6392, pp. 987-992.
15) Tim Worstall, “It Does Not Take 7 kg of Grain to Make 1 kg of Beef: Be Very Careful With Your Statistics”, Forbes, Sept. 3, 2012.
16) Josh Gabbatiss, “Feeding Cows Seaweed Cuts 99% of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Their Burps, Research Finds”, The Independent, May 25, 2018.
17) Roonal Pritam Kataria, “Use of Feed Additives for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Dairy Farms,” Microbiology Research, 2015, Volume 6:6120, p.23.
20) BMC Medicine, “Meat Consumption and Mortality: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition”, BMC Medicine 2013 11:63. March 7, 2013.
21) Michael Mosley, How safe is eating meat? BBC Horizon, 18 Aug 2014.
22) Prabhat Jha, in a video of his lecture to Science for Peace “How to Live Forever”, Jan 17, 2018.
23) Allan Savory with Jody Butterfield, Holistic Management: A Commonsense Revolution to Restore Our Environment, (Amazon, 2016). See also Savory’s famous TED talk, “How to Green the World’s Deserts and Reverse Climate Change”
24) George Monbiot, “Eat More Meat and Save the Word: The Latest Implausible Farming Miracle.” The Guardian, Aug 4, 2014.
25) Harriet Friedmann’s video conversation with Metta Spencer, “Biodiversity and Food”
26) Moises Velasquez-Manoff, “Can Dirt Save the Earth?” The New York Times Magazine, April 18, 2018.
27) Ross Andersen, “Welcome to Pleistocene Park”, The Atlantic, April 2017.
28) See a marvelous documentary video about this project in the article itself. Also a TED talk about the Zimovs, [https://www.youtu.be/wO0wyICAAqg
29) Andersen, “Welcome to Pleistocene Park”, op.cit.
1) Paul Hawken, ed. Drawdown: The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming, p. 220.
2) David Nield, “Good News Soil Could be a Much Larger Carbon Sink Than We Hoped,” Science Alert, Nov 11, 2017. https://www.sciencealert.com/soil-minerals-could-be-huge-carbon-dioxide-sink and Renee Cho, “Can Soil Help Combat Climate Change?” State of the Planet, Earth Institute, Columbia University, Feb. 21, 2018. https://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2018/02/21/can-soil-help-combat-climate-change/
3) Ian Johnston, “World’s soils have lost 133 billion tonnes of carbon since the dawn of agriculture, study estimates,” The Independent, Aug 29, 2017 https://www.independent.co.uk/news/soil-lost-carbon-133-billion-tonnes-farming-agriculture-deforestation-a7918941.html. The quotation is attributed to a report, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
4) Renee Cho, ibid.
5) See the campaign’s website: https://www.4p1000.org/
6) Tim Hammerich, “Farming Microbes.” https://futureofag.com/farming-microbes-14ba34364b20
7) Albert K. Bates, The Biochar Solution: Carbon Farming and Climate Change. (Kindle book, 2010).
8) Jeremy Hance, “Ultimate Bogs: How Saving Peatlands Could Help Save the Planet,” The Guardian, July 28, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/jul/28/ultimate-bogs-how-saving-peatlands-could-help-save-the-planet
10) Charlie Campbell, “China’s Greening of the Vast Kubuqi Desert is a Model for Land Restoration Projects Everywhere” Time, July 27, 2017 http://time.com/4851013/china-greening-kubuqi-desert-land-restoration/
11) National Resources Defence Council, “Ocean Acidification: The Other CO2 Problem,” https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/NRDC-OceanAcidFSWeb.pdf
12) Earth Institute News, Columbia University, 18 Nov. 2009
13) Michael Hogan, (2010) “Calcium”, in A. Jorgenson and C. Cleveland (eds.) Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC.
14) National Resources Defence Council, op cit.
15) CNRS (Délégation Paris Michel-Ange), 23 February 2009. “Ocean Less Effective At Absorbing Carbon Dioxide Emitted By Human Activity”. ScienceDaily.
16) K.M.Sheps, M.D.Max, J.P.Osegovic, S.R.Tatro, L.A.Brazel, “A case for deep-ocean CO2 sequestration,” Energy Procedia, Vol.1, Iss.1, February 2009, pp. 4961-4968. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610209009710
17) Robert McSweeney, “Scientists Solve Ocean ‘Carbon Sink’ Puzzle,” CarbonBrief, Feb. 8, 2017. https://carbonbrief.org/
18) Buesseler, K.O.; Doney, SC; Karl, DM; Boyd, PW; Caldeira, K; Chai, F; Coale, KH; De Baar, HJ; Falkowski, PG; Johnson, KS; Lampitt, R. S.; Michaels, A. F.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Smetacek, V.; Takeda, S.; Watson, A. J.; et al. (2008). “ENVIRONMENT: Ocean Iron Fertilization—Moving Forward in a Sea of Uncertainty” (PDF). Science 319 (5860): 162. doi:10.1126/science.1154305. PMID 18187642
19) “Methane emissions from cattle are 11% higher than estimated,” The Guardian, Sept. 29, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/sep/29/methane-emissions-cattle-11-percent-higher-than-estimated
20) Hawken, op cit. p. 204.
21) Phys-Org News. “Forests Absorb One Third of Our Fossil Fuel Emissions,” https://phys.org/news/2011-07-forests-absorb-fossil-fuel-emissions.html
22) Hawken, op. cit., p. 108.
23) Hawken, op. cit., p. 114.
24) Hawken, op. cit., p. 109.
25) Laura Parker, “Teen ager is on Track to Plant a Trillion Trees,” National Geographic, March 2, 2017. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/03/felix-finkbeiner-plant-for-the-planet-one-trillion-trees/ and https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/great-green-wall-stop-desertification-not-so-much-180960171
26) See this video “GreenHands” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WiFRnimTVHU
27) See the video produced by Project Save the World with Malcolm Potts on the population growth of the Sahel, https://youtube.com/watch?v=Qn0W7ybF3aM
28) Jim Morrison, “The “Great Green Wall” Didn’t Stop Desertification, but it Evolved Into Something That Might,” Smithsonian.com, August 23, 2016. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/great-green-wall-stop-desertification-not-so-much-180960171
29) Hawken, op. cit, pp 50,58.
30) Erin Stone, “Drones Spray Tree Seeds From the Sky to Fight Deforestation” National Geographic. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/11/drones-plant-trees-deforestation-environment/
31) IPCC, (2005) “Chapter 5: Underground geological storage” IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Metz, B., O. Davidson, H. C. De Coninck, M. Loos, and L. A. Meyer, eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 195-276.
32) “Extracting carbon from nature can aid climate but will be costly: U.N.” Reuters, 26/03/2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-climatechange-ccs-idUSBREA2P1LK20140326
33) Carbon Engineering’s website is: http://carbonengineering.com/about-dac/
34) Climeworks’ website is https://www.climeworks.com/
35) Simon Evans, “The Swiss company hoping to capture 1% of global CO2 emissions by 2025.” CarbonBrief, 22 June 2017. https://www.carbonbrief.org/swiss-company-hoping-capture-1-global-co2-emissions-2025
36) Elizabeth Kolbert, “Climate Solutions: Is it Feasible to Remove Enough CO2 from the Air?” YaelEnvironment360. https://e360.yale.edu/features/negative-emissions-is-it-feasible-to-remove-co2-from-the-air
37) David Beerling, “How ‘enhanced weathering’ could Slow Climate Change and Boost Crop Yields.” CarbonBrief, Feb, 19, 2018. https://www.carbonbrief.org/guest-post-how-enhanced-weathering-could-slow-climate-change-and-boost-crop-yields
We produce several one-hour-long Zoom conversations each week about various aspects of six issues we address. You can watch them live and send a question to the speakers or watch the edited version later here or on our Youtube channel.