Footnotes 3

This page contains footnotes / endnotes for articles in the Famine, Pandemics, Radiation Exposure, and Cyber Attacks sections, plus the Fatal Combinations article.


Plank 13. All states shall accelerate SDG efforts to end poverty and enable all to obtain food and potable water


Banik, D. (2007), Starvation and India’s democracy. London/New York: Routledge.

Devereux S. (2000). Famine in the Twentieth Century. University of Sussex: IDS Working Paper 105. Available at

Devereux, S. (Ed.) (2007). The New Famines: Why Famine Persists in an Era of Globalization. London/New York: Routledge.

de Waal, A. (1989). Famine that Kills: Darfur, Sudan, 1984-1985. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

de Waal, A. (1997). Famine Crimes: Politics and the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. London: James Currey.

de Waal, A. (2000). Democratic Political Process and the Fight Against Famine. University of Sussex: IDS Working Paper 107. Available at

de Waal, A. (2015). Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Hunger: Is an End in Sight? (pp. 23-29). In K. von Grebmer et al (Eds). Global Hunger Index: Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Hunger. International Food Policy Research Institute, Concern Worldwide, and Welthungerhilfe

de Waal, A. (2018). Mass Starvation: The History and Future of Famine. Cambridge: Polity.

IPC Global Partners. (2012). Integrated Food Security Phase Classification Technical Manual Version 2.0. Evidence and Standards for Better Food Security Decisions. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available at

International Food Security Phase Classification. (2016). Guidelines on Key parameters for IPC Famine classification. Available at:

O’Brien, S. (2017). Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs/Emergency Relief Coordinator Stephen O’Brien: Statement to the Security Council on Missions to Yemen, South Sudan, Somalia and Kenya and an Update on the Oslo Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region. 10 March. Available at:

Ó Gráda, C. (2015). Eating People Is Wrong, and Other Essays on Famine, Its Past, and Its Future. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Physicians for Social Responsibility (2013). Climate Change and Famine. 15 March. Available at

Sadliwala, B. & de Waal, A. (2018). The Emerging Crisis: Is Famine Returning as a Major Driver of Migration? Migration Information Source. Available at

Sen. A. (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sen. A. (1983). Development: Which Way Now? The Economic Journal, (3(372), pp. 745-762.

Tauger, M. B. (2001). Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1933. The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies (1506): 1–65.

Thaxton, R. (2008). Catastrophe and Contention in Rural China: Mao’s Great Leap Forward Famine and the Origins of Righteous Resistance in Da Fo Village. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

United Nations (2018). Half the population of Yemen at risk of famine: UN emergency relief chief. United Nations News. 23 October. Available at

von Grebmer, K., Bernstein, J. Prasai, N, Yin, S. & Yohannes, Y. (2015). Global Hunger Index: Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Hunger. International Food Policy Research Institute, Concern Worldwide, and Welthungerhilfe. Available at

Woodham-Smith, C. 1962). The Great Hunger: Ireland 1845–1849. London: Penguin.

World Health Organization (2018). Famine and health. Available at

World Peace Foundation (2018). Famine Trends Dataset, Tables and Graphs. Available at

United Nations Development Program (2018). Sustainable Development Goals. Available at

The IPC is a common global scale for classifying the severity and magnitude of food insecurity and malnutrition. It is the result of a partnership of various organizations at global, regional and country levels dedicated to developing and maintaining the highest possible quality in food security and nutrition analysis.

Plank 14. All states shall support improvements of soil health for resilient food production and carbon sequestration

1) Stefan Frank, Petr Havlík, Jean-François Soussana, Eva Wollenberg, Michael Obersteiner. The potential of soil organic carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation and food security. CCAFS/CGIAR info Note, October 2017.



4) Lal R, Follett BA, Stewart JM, Kimble. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change and advance food security.Soil Science 172 (12)943-956 (2007).

5) L. B. Guo, R. M. Gifford. Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis.|Global Change Biology, Volume 8, Issue 4], 2002. []

6) R. A. Houghton , J. I. House , J. Pongratz, G. R. van der Werf , R. S. DeFries , M. C. Hansen , C. Le Quere and N. Ramankutty. Carbon emissions from l.and use and land-cover change Biogeosciences, 9, 5125-5142, 2012


8) Paul Hawken (ed.) Drawdown. New York: Penguin, 2017. Page 48.

9) Tord Kjellstrom, Ingvar Holmer, Bruno Lemke. Workplace heat stress, health and productivity:an increasing challenge for low and middle-income countries during climate change. Global Health Action 2009:2. doi:

10) Chuang Zhao et al. Temperature increase reduces yields in major crops in four independent estimates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PNAS August 29, 2017 114 (35) 93269331;

11) Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN. Climate change and food security: a framework document (2008).

12) Cogo, N. P., W. C. Moldenhauer, and G. R. Foster. 1984. Soil Loss Reductions from Conservation Tillage Practices. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48:368-373

13) (FAO. The carbon sequestration potential in agricultural soils. Submission to the UN Third Session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long Term Cooperative Action under the Convention, Accra, August 2008

14) Mutiu Abolanle Busari, Surinder Singh Kukal, Amanpreet Kaur, Rajan Bhatt, Ashura Ally Dulazi. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2015, Pages 119-129.


16) Beerling, D. J. et al. (2018) Farming with crops and rocks to address global climate, food and soil security, Nature Plants,

17) Baker No-Tillage Ltd, Fielding This site shows the cross-slot plough that can apply the biochar below the soil surface through a seed drill.
DW Graves (2013] “A comparison of methods to apply biochar into temperate soils”, Ch. 7, pp. 202-260, in Biochar and Soil Biota, CRC Press.

18) L. B. Guo, R. M. Gifford. Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis. //Global Change Biology//

19) Richard T. Conant, Keith Paustian, Edward T. Elliott. Grassland management and conversion into grassland: effects on soil carbon. Geoderma, Volume 149, Issues 1-2], 15 February 2009, Pages 84-91.

20) Richard T. Conant, Carlos E. P. Cerri, Brooke B. Osborne], Keith Paustian. Grassland management impacts on soil carbon stocks: a new synthesis. Ecological Applications Volume 27, Issue 2, 2017.

21) Paul Hawken, ed. Drawdown: the most comprehensive plan ever proposed to reverse global warming. New York: Penguin Books, 2017

22) Ibid., pp. 172-174.

23) Bhupinder Pal Singh , Blake J. Hatton, Balwant Singh, Annette L. Cowie, Amrit Kathuria. Influence of Biochars on Nitrous Oxide Emission and Nitrogen Leaching from Two Contrasting Soils. Journal of Environmental Quality Vol. 39 No. 4, p. 1224-1235, 2010

24) Hawken ed., op. cit., p. 175.

25) Hawken, op. cit.

26) Holger Kirchmann and Lars F. Bergstrom. Do organic farming practices reduce leaching of N? (no date given)

27) O. Dahan , A. Babad , N. Lazarovitch , E. E. Russak , and D. Kurtzman. Nitrate leaching from intensive organic farms to groundwater. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 333-341, 2014

28) Lal R, Follett BA, Stewart JM, Kimble. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change and advance food security.Soil Science 172 (12)943-956 (2007)

29) Budiman Minasny et al. Soil Carbon 4 per mille. Geoderma Vol 292, pp59-86, 2017.



32) Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Jan.16, 2019.


Overview: Pandemics



3) Source: UN’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs. May 17, 2018.  (back)


5) Lena Sun, “Bill Gates calls on U.S. to lead fight against a pandemic that could kill 33 millionThe Washington Post, April 27, 2018.

6) David Mannheim, “Questioning Estimates of Natural Pandemic Risk”, Health Security, Vol. 16, No. 6 2018.

Plank 16. UN shall adopt a ‘one health approach’ integrating veterinary and environmental science to mitigate pandemics.

Radiation Exposure

Plank 17. All states shall shift rapidly to effective generation of electricity by using renewable energy.

1) Greenpeace rejects Chernobyl toll,?BBC, 18 April 2006,?archived?from the original on 2018-04-19, retrieved?May 5, 2019.

2) Hillel J. Hoffman, “The Permian Extinction: When Life Nearly Came to an End”, The National Geographic.

3) Frank Barnaby, “Consequences of a Nuclear Renaissance” (PDF); International Symposium.

4) World Nuclear Organization, “Nuclear Power Today”

5) Ted Koppel, Lights Out: A Cyberattack, A Nation Unprepared, Surviving the Aftermath, New York: Penguin, 2015.

6) William Pentland, “A Review of Ted Koppel’s ‘Lights Out!” Forbes, April 24, 2016.

7) World Nuclear Organization, op. cit.

8) ibid.

9) Jeremy Berke,“One Simple Chart Shows Why an Energy Revolution is Coming — and Who is Likely to Come Out of it on Top”, Harvard University’s Business Insider, May. 5, 2018.

10) Megan Mahajan, “Plunging Prices Mean Building New Renewable Energy is Cheaper Than Running Existing Coal”, Forbes, Dec. 3, 2018.

11) David Leonhardt, “The Problem With Putting a Price on the End of the World,” New York Times Magazine, April 9, 2019.

12) Christy Borth, Masters of Mass Production, Indianapolis, IN, Bobbs-Merrile, 1945, p. 237.

13) For a list of 104 large companies operating in the nuclear power industry, see Wikipedia, “List of companies in the Nuclear Sector,” dated July 2016.

14) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Radiation: Risks and Realities,” May 2007. Available at [].

Plank 18. All states shall prioritize the long-term control and safe storage of radioactive wastes, with public review.

1) World Nuclear Association, “Radioactive Waste Management”, updated April 2018.

2) “Radon Kills More People Than Drunk Driving”, Media blog, Indoor Doctor. Retrieved May 12, 2019

3) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, “Natural Background Radiation”, Jan. 2013.

4) Subhan Ali, “Nuclear Waste Disposal Methods”.

5) Synroc is a “synthetic rock” — a ceramic made from natural minerals that incorporate into their crystal structures nearly all of the elements present in high-level radioactive waste. Iyt is not actually a disposal method, for it still can harm anything in its surroundings and must be stored with as much caution as other forms of radioactivity.

6) R. C. Ewing, “Nuclear Waste Forms for Actinides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96, 3432 (1999).

7) R. L. Murray and K. L. Manke, Understanding Radioactive Waste (Battelle Press, 2003).

8) A. Macfarlane, “Underlying Yucca Mountain: The Interplay of Geology and Policy in Nuclear Waste Disposal,” Social Studies of Science 33, 783 (2003).

9) A. Andrews, “Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing: U.S. Policy Development,” CRS Report for Congress RS22542, 27 Mar 08.

10) S. Charalambus, “Nuclear Transmutation by Negative Stopped Muons and the Activity Induced by the Cosmic-Ray Muons,” Nucl. Phys. A 166, 145 (1971).

11) J. Coopersmith, “Nuclear Waste Disposal in Space: BEP’s Best Hope?” AIP Conference Proceedings 830, 600 (2005).

12) E.C. Freiling (20 September 1965). Radionuclide Fractionation in Air-Burst Debris (PDF). U.S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Retrieved 11 May 2019.

13) Tim Fernholz, “US Nuclear Tests Killed Far More Civilians Than We Knew,” Quartz, Dec. 17, 2018.

14) “Radioactive Fallout from Global Weapons Testing”. Centers for Disease Control, 2019-02-11. Retrieved 2019-05-11.

15) “Depleted Uranium: Sources, Exposure, and Health Effects.” Executive Summary. World Health Organization. Retrieved May 11, 2019.

16) “NATO Press Conference on Depleted Uranium”, North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Retrieved 11 May 2019.

17) Sarah Diehl & Eduardo Fujii, Brazil’s Pursuit of a Nuclear Submarine Raises Proliferation Concerns. WMD Insights. Archived from the original on 2008-03-16. Retrieved 11 May 2019.

18) Brayton Harris, World Submarine History Timeline, Part Four: 1941-2000”

19) “Do Sunken Nuclear Submarines Pose a Risk of Radioactive Pollution?” Technology Org, Feb. 5, 2019.

20) Patrick Kozakiewicz, “The Disposal of Nuclear Waste into the World’s Oceans.” Retrieved May 12, 2019.

21) “Nuclear Submarine Dismantlement”, Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved May 11, 2019.

22), 23), 32) Ibid.

24) “42 Hanford Workers Contaminated with Radiation”, Seattle Times, Mar. 27, 2018.

25) Adam Wynne, “Lessons from Mayak: The Effects of Environmental Plutonium Exposure”, Peace Magazine, Oct-Dec 2018, page 24.

26) Debra Killalea, “Marshall Islands: Concrete Dome Holding Nuclear Waste Could Leak”,, Nov. 27, 2017.

27) World Nuclear Association, “Number of Nuclear Reactors Operable and Under Construction”, retrieved May 12, 2019.

28) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, “Tritium Fact Sheet”, Dec. 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2019.

29) Franklin C. Miller and John R, Harvey, “Commentary: The Looming Crisis for U.S. Tritium Production”, Defence News. © 2019 Sightline Media Group (Not a U.S. government publication). Retrieved May 12, 2019.

30) “Nuclear Waste”, World Information Service on Energy. Retrieved May 12, 2019.

31) World Nuclear Association, “Radioactive Waste Management,” op. cit.

33) “Nuclear Waste,” World Information Service on Energy, op cit.

34) Aaron Jones, “Ocean Dumping of Nuclear Waste”. Submitted as coursework for Stanford University, Winter 2017.

35) Patrick Kozakiewicz, op cit.

36) Kozakiewicz, op cit.

37) Jones, op. cit.

38) “Toxins in Fish”, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved May 12, 2019.

39) David W. Hafemeister Physics of societal issues: calculations on national security, environment, and energy, Berlin: Springer 2007, p. 187. ISBN: 0387689095.

40) Henry Fountain, “On Nuclear Waste, Finland Shows How It Can Be Done”, The New York Times, June 9, 2017.

41) Remix & Return: A Complete Low-Level Nuclear Waste Solution,, Dec. 21, 2011.

42) Website of the Nuclear Security Summit, 2016

43) “Nuclear Security After the Summits”, a report of a meeting in Vienna posted on 18 October 2016 by the Vienna Centre for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation.

Cyber Attacks

Plank 19. The UN shall declare cyberspace a peaceful commons and create a binding treaty for international cyber norms.

1) UNGA First Committee, “Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security”, 1998, A/RES/53/70.

2) Eneken Tikk and Mika Kerttunen, Parabasis: Cyber-diplomacy in Stalemate. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 2018.

3) UN Office for Disarmament Affairs, “Factsheet: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security”, 2019.

4) ibid.

5) Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security, Report, 2013, A/68/98.

6) UN Office for Disarmament Affairs, 2019.

7) UN General Assembly, “Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security”, 11 December 2019, A/RES/73/27, available

8) Detailed reporting on cyber security issue at the 2018 UNGA First Committee can be found in the 2018 First Committee Monitor, Volume 5 and Volume 6.

9) Paul Meyer, “Global Cyber Security Norms: A Proliferation Problem?”, ICT4Peace Foundation, 3 December 2018.

10) France Diplomatie, “Cybersecurity: Paris Call of 12 November 2018 for Trust and Security in Cyberspace”, 2018

11) Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace, Norm Package, Singapore, 2018.

12) Microsoft, “A Digital Geneva Convention to protect cyberspace”.

13) Tikk and Kerttunen, 2018.

14) For more information see the International Committee of the Red Cross, “Cyber Warfare”

15) Additional details on this can be found in Tikk and Kerttunen, pp.15-16.

16) Additional details can be found in Ido Kilovaty and Itamar Mann, “Towards a Cyber-Security Treaty”, 3 August 2016.

17) UN Human Rights Council, “Accelerating efforts to eliminate violence against women and girls: preventing and responding to violence against women and girls in digital contexts”, 2018, A/HRC/38/L.6.

18) UN Human Rights Council, “The promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights”, 2012, A/HRC/32/L.20.

19) Frank William La Rue, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, UN Human Rights Council, 2011, A/HRC/RES/16/4.

20) UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, “The right to privacy in the digital age. UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights”, 2014, A/HRC/27/37.

21) Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, Report. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2018, A/HRC/38/35.

22) See, for example, Open Observatory for Network Interference,

23) See, for example Amnesty International’s Citizen Evidence Lab,

Plank 20. Manufacturers of ICT hardware and software shall be liable for negligent security failures that cause harm.

1) University of the Basque Country, “Pacemakers with Internet connection a not-so-distant goal”, Science Daily, Jan, 28, 2015.

2) Tim Vanderveen, “From Smart Pumps to Intelligent Infusion Systems: The Promise of Interoperability”, Patient Safety and Quality Healthcare, May-June 2014

3) See the astonishing list of such computerized things documented in Bruce Schneier, Click Here to Kill Everybody (New York: Norton, 2018), p. 3.

4) Calvin Biesecker, “Boeing 757 testing shows airplanes vulnerable to hacking”, Aviation Today, Nov. 8, 2017.

5) Nicole Perlroth and David Sanger, “Cyberattacks put Russian fingers on the switch at power plants, U.S. says”, New York Times, March 15, 2018.

6) Morel, p. 416.

7) Christopher Meyer, “This teen hacked 150,000 printers to show how the internet of Things is shit”, Vice Motherboard, Feb 8, 2018.

8) Schneier, op cit.

9) Tony Danova, “Morgan Stanley: 75 billion devices will be connected to the Internet of Things by 2020” Business Insider, Oct. 2, 2013.

10) Jane Chong, “What you don’t know about Internet security will definitely hurt you.” The New Republic, Oct. 22, 2012.

11) Dan Mayer, “Ratio of bugs per Line of code,” in his blog, Continuously Deployed, 11 Nov. 2012.

12) Schneier, op cit. Chapter 8, “Government is who enables security.”

13) Dundas Lawyers, Brisbane, “Are software developers liable for defects in their software?”, Dec. 20, 2016.

14) Chong, “We need strict laws…”

15) Jane Chong, “Why is our cybersecurity so insecure?” The New Republic, October 11 2013.

16) Schneier, Chapter 10: “Plan B: What’s likely to happen”.

Fatal Combinations

1. PBS News Hour, “Did Food Prices Spur the Arab Spring?” Sept 2, 2011,

2. Lina Eklund and Darcy Thompson, “Is Syria Really a ‘Climate War’? We Examined the Links Between Drought, Migration and conflict,” The Conversation, July 21, 2017.

3. “How to Think About Global Warming and War: They are Linked – and That is Worrying.” The Economist, May 23, 2019.

4. “World Military Expenditure Grows to $1.8 trillion in 2018.” Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), report.

5. Florian Polsterer, “Militarism and Climate Change: The Elephant in the Living Room,” Student Energy,

6. Jenni Lee, “How Can We Track Progress on the SDGs? Here’s How,” United Nations Foundation,

7. Amartya Sen, Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. (Oxford, New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press, 1982).

8. “South Sudan: UN report contains “searing” account of killings, rapes and destruction”. United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. 11 March 2016.

9. “Over 100 civilians killed in a month, including fishermen, refugees, as Yemen conflict reaches two-year mark”. ReliefWeb, June 8, 2018.

10. “Saudi Arabia ‘deliberately targeting impoverished Yemen’s farms and agricultural industry’”. The Independent, 5 June 2018.

11. Chris R Albon, “Is Famine a Crime Against Humanity?” UN Dispatch, Oct t6, 2011. See also Alex de Waal, Mass Starvation: The History and Future of Famine (London: Polity, 2018).

12. Infoplease.

13. Julian Cribb, “The Coming Famine: Risks and Solutions for Global Food Security,” Science Alert, April 18, 2010.

14. United Nations Meetings Coverage and Press Releases, “Devastating Impacts of Climate Change Threatening Farm Outputs, Increasing Global Hunger, Delegates Say as Second Committee Takes UP Agriculture, Food Security,” Oct 12, 2018.

15. Spanish Flu,

16. William Trent, William Trent’s Journal at Fort Pitt.

17. Stanford University, “The Collision of Civil War and Threat of Global Pandemics,” October 19, 2017.

18. Lena H Sun, “Bill Gates Calls on U.S to Lead Fight Against a Pandemic That Could Kill 33 Million.” The Washington Post, April 27, 2018.

19. Laura H. Kahn, One Health: And the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 2016).

20. Maggie O’Neill, “A Deadly Superbug Fungus Called Candida Auris Has Been Detected in 12 States – Here’s What You Need to Know,” Explore Health, May 16, 2019.

21. Sarah Pruitt, “How Colonization’s Death Toll May Have Affected Earth’s Climate,” History Stories,

22. World Health Organization, “Famine and Health,”

23. NASA Earth Observatory, “Volcanoes and Climate Change,” Sept. 5, 2000.

24. Andrea Peterson, “The Sony Pictures Hack, Explained.” The Washington Post, Dec. 18, 2014.

25. Tarah Wheeler, “In Cyberwar, There Are No Rules,” Foreign Policy, Sept. 12, 2018.

26. ICRC, IHL Database, “Customary IHL. Rule 28: Medical Units.”

27. Nicole Wetsman, “Health Care’s Huge Cybersecurity Problem.” The Verge, April 4, 2019.

28. “Cyber-attack cost NHS £92m – DHSC”. Health Service Journal. 11 October 2018.

29. “White House says WannaCry attack was carried out by North Korea”. CBS News. 19 December 2017.

30. Kim Zetter, “Hospital Viruses: Fake Cancerous Nodes in CT Scans, Created by Malware, Trick Radiologists.” The Washington Post, April 3, 2019.