Footnotes 4

This page contains footnotes / endnotes for articles in the “Enabling Measures” section.

Plank 21. All states shall support SDGs; tax wealth and financial transactions; and redistribute funds equitably.

1) Myron Frankman, World Democratic Federalism: Peace and Justice Indivisible, page 189

2) Philippe Van Parijs and Yannick Vanderborght, Basic Income: A Radical Proposal for a Free Society and a Sane Economy, 2017, Harvard University Press, page 4.

3) /



6) Ibid.

7) These come from

8) Parijs et al. page 21.


10) “Is basic income better than pharmacare?”, Andre Picard, Globe and Mail, June 25, 2019.


12) Parijs et al. page 99.


14) An earlier version of this essay was distributed to the International Campaign to Ban Landmines in 1996 as a submission proposing ways to generate revenue for landmine clearance. This essay has been noticeably updated with examples of the proposal that have been developed since 1996.

15) Kaul and Langmore in “The Tobin Tax”, 1996

16) Mahbub ul Haq et al, 1996: pg. 2

17) Ul Haq, 1996: pg. 133

18) Kaul and Langmore 1996: p.256

Plank 22. All multilateral institutions shall heed the demands of international civil society alliances for justice.

1) Oetzel and Doh, MNEs and development: a review and reconceptualization, in Journal of World Business, April 2009, Volume 44, page 108-120.

2) Tony Hill, Three Generations of UN-Civil Society Relations, World Policy Forum. April 2004.

3) Maxwell Cameron, “Democratization of Foreign Policy: The Ottawa Process as a Model” in To Walk Without Fear: The Global Movement to Ban Landmines, Editors: Maxwell A. Cameron, Brian W. Tomlin, Bob Lawson, Oxford University Press, 1998.

4) Oetzel and Doh, “MNEs and development: a review and reconceptualization”, in Journal of World Business, April 2009, Volume 44, page 108-120.

5) Peter Hall-Jones, “The Rise and Rise of NGOs”, May 2006, Global Policy Forum.

6) Christopher Pallas and Anders Uhlin, “Civil Society Influence on International Organizations: Theorizing the State Channel”, in Journal of Civil Society 10(2), April 2014.


8) Pallas and Uhlin, 2014.

9) NATO’s nuclear deterrence policy is found in its strategic concept policy (which can be amended from time to time), not within its Charter, which is the foundational statement of the military alliance.

10) Mathew Bolton and Thomas Nash, “The Role of Middle Power–NGO Coalitions in Global Policy: The Case of the Cluster Munitions Ban”, in Global Policy, May 2010.

11) Unacceptable Harm: A History of How the Treaty to Ban Cluster Munitions Was Won (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research), 2009.

12) David Lenarcic, Knight-errant?: Canada and the crusade to ban anti-personnel land mines. Contemporary Affairs Series, 1998.

13) It should be mentioned that there was a notable role played by the Dutch. “The Netherlands, which hosts US nuclear weapons on its territory, participated in the negotiation of the UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons but voted against its adoption on 7 July 2017. It was the only nation to do so. It claims that US nuclear weapons are essential for its security.” (ICAN website reference).

14) “Executive summary – Southern voices on climate policy choices: analysis of and lessons learned from civil society advocacy on climate change”, Hannah Reid et al. May 2002. A report produced by 20 civil society networks in developing countries, with support from the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and CARE through the Climate Capacity Consortium.

15) “Civil society vital to drive momentum on Paris Agreement targets”

16) See World Religions Summit final statement to G8/G20 leaders (May 2019).

Plank 23. Sub-national governments and non-state actors shall exercise leadership in solving global problems.

1) Physicians for Social Responsibility News, Aug. 28, 2018.

2) “Even in Trump’s America, California Could Decide How Cleanly Your Car Runs,” by Steven Overly. Washington Post, Feb. 23, 2017.

3) The Economist, Sept. 15, 2018, “California leads Subnational Efforts to Curb Climate Change”.

4) Economist, ibid.

5) C40 Steering Committee,, accessed April 17, 2019.

6) retrieved April 17 2019.

7), 8)

9), accessed April 17, 2019.


11) Global Compact Network Bulgaria – “Archived copy”. Retrieved April 17, 2019.

12)|“Program to Promote Solidarity of Cities towards the Total Abolition of Nuclear Weapons”

13) The Economist, “California Leads…”

14) Marianne Lavelle, “California Ups Its Clean Energy Game: Gov. Brown Signs 100% Zero-Carbon Electricity Bill,” Inside Climate News, Sept 20, 2019.

15), 16) Inside Climate News, ibid.

Plank 24. Investors and regulators shall compel all businesses to comply with the U.N. Global Compact.

Plank 25. Social movements and states shall prioritize Sustainable Common Security to address shared global challenges.

1 The Dalai Lama and Sofia Stril-Rever, A Call for Revolution: A Vision for the Future, (Morrow, 2017), p.34

2 Antonio Guterres, “The climate strikers should inspire us all to act at the next UN summit”, MercoPress, March 16, 2019. Available:

3 United Nations, Climate Change, “State of the Climate in 2018 Shows Accelerating Climate Change Impacts”, UN Press Release, March 27, 2019. Available:

4 Jonathan Watts, “We have 12 years to limit climate change catastrophe, warns UN”, The Guardian, October 8, 2018. Available: As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) cautioned, we have to turn things around promptly in this period before we pass the point of no return.

5 United Nations, Climate Change, “What is the Paris Agreement”, COP 21, Paris, December 12, 2015. Available:

6 John Lancaster, “Climate change is the deadliest legacy we will leave the young”, The Guardian, February 6,2019. Available:

7 “How climate change is fueling conflict around the world”, CBC radio interview with Sherri Goodman, October 12, 2018. Available:…climate…conflict…/how-climate-change-is-fueling-conflict-aroun…

8 Global Warming Impacts: the consequences of climate change are already here“, Union of Concerned Scientists, January 2019. Available: Also see, Laurie Goering, “Climate change threatens to spark conflicts around the world: security experts” Reuters, (Global News), February 19, 2019. Available:

9 Damian Carrington, “Humanity has wiped out 60% of animal populations since 1970, report finds”, The Guardian, October 30, 2018. Available:

10 Climate Central, “The 10 Hottest Global Years on Record”, February 6, 2019. Available:

11 UNHCR, Figures At A Glance. Available:

12 Sebastian von Einsiedel, Louise Bosetti, Cale Salih, Wilfred Wan & James Cockayne, “Civil War Trends and the Changing Nature of Armed Conflict”, United Nations University, Centre for Policy Research, April 25, 2017. Available:

13 Joseph Stiglitz, “The Climate Crisis Is Our Third World War. It Needs a Bold Response”. The Guardian, June 6, 2019. Available:

14 See Eric Schlosser, “The Growing Dangers of the New Nuclear Arms Race”, The New Yorker, May 24, 2018. Available:

15 “The chances of nuclear war are higher than they’ve been in generations” – a warning UN disarmament chief Izumi Nakamitsu recently conveyed to the UN Security Council. Cited in Linda McQuaig, “Prospect of nuclear war highest in decades, yet media ignores”, Toronto Star, April 10, 2019. Available:

16 See, Seth Baum, “The Risk of Nuclear Winter”, Federation of American Scientists, May 29, 2015. Available:

17 Global Peace Index 2018, Vision of Humanity, Institute for Economics and Peace Available:

18 See, Larry Elliott, “World’s 26 richest people own as much as poorest 50%, says Oxfam, The Guardian, January 21, 2019. Available:

19 Dani Rodrik, “The fatal flaw of neoliberalism: it’s bad economics”, The Guardian, November 14, 2017. Available:

20 Larry Elliot, “Austerity policies do more harm than good, IMF study concludes”, The Guardian, May 27, 2016. Available:

21 Joergen Oerstroem Moeller, “Desperate Millions Flee Poverty, Persecution and Inequality: Nations must tackle root causes of disorderly migration – or expect more economic crises and armed conflict”, YaleGlobal Online, Yale University, June 11, 2015. Available:

22 UNESCO, (Social and Human Sciences Sector), “Rising extreme inequality is a concern for us all”, March 16, 2017. Available:

23 As Mexican Environment Secretary, Victor Manuel Toledo Manzur recently stated: “Human beings are not responsible for global warming, as a superficial environmentalism and uncritical science would like to tell us. The responsible are a parasitic and predatory minority, and that minority has a name: neoliberalism.” Cited in Jon Queally, “Let’s Be Clear, Says Mexico Environment Minister, ‘Parasitic and Predatory Neoliberalism’ to Blame for Climate Crisis”, Common Dreams, June 1, 2019. Available:–

24 Paul Rogers, ‘The key to global security? It is not just about security’, Open Democracy, May 13, 2019. Available:

25 See, The United Nations, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, December 10, 1948. Available:

26 UN News, “Human rights under attack, ‘no longer a priority; a pariah’ – UN rights chief”, May 22, 2018. Available: As Zeid Rafad Al Hussein, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, stated, “The world is sliding back on human rights and its principles are under attack in all corners of the globe.”

27 For a progressive overview see, John Halpin, William Schulz, and Sarah Dreier, “Universal Human Rights in Progressive Thought and Politics”, Centre for American Progress, August, 2010 Available:

28 This is evident in the widespread abuse of the more vulnerable; promotion of inequality and exclusivity; a culture of impunity permissive of violent conflict, including mass atrocity crimes; and, serial abusers repressing free speech and dissent.

29 See Mark Triffitt, ‘A growing mistrust in democracy is causing extremism and strongman politics to flourish’, The Conversation, July 9, 2018. Available:

30 Rana Dasgupta, “The demise of the nation state”, The Guardian, April 5, 2018. Available:

31 Alex Ward, “Read Trump’s speech to the UN General Assembly”, Vox, September 25, 2018. Available:

32 United Nations, Secretary-General, “The Secretary-General’s address at the International Charlemagne Prize of Aachen for the Unity of Europe”, May 30, 2019. Available:

33 See, Our Global Neighborhood: The Report of the Commission on Global Governance, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995). Available in part:

34 See, for example, the inspiring work of The World Federalist Movement – Canada and their diverse programs on building Peace and Security, Global Democracy, Global Governance, The Responsibility to Protect and, related leadership roles on a UN Parliamentary Assembly and the International Criminal Court. World Federalist Movement –Canada ‘Building a world community’. Available:

35 See, Alfred W. McCoy, “What Does It Take to Destroy a World Order? How Climate Change Could End Washington’s Global Dominion”, Tom’s Dispatch, February 28, 2019. Available:

36 Rogers, “A world in need: the case for sustainable security”, Open Democracy, September 11, 2009. Available:

37 See Oxford Research Group, “Sustainable Security”. Available: At an earlier stage, the ORG identified four interconnected trends that are most likely to lead to substantial global and regional instability, and large-scale loss of life, of a magnitude unmatched by other potential threats:
— Climate change
— Competition over resources
— Marginalization of the majority world
— Global militarization


38 Oxford Research Group,“Sustainable Security”

39 The concept of common security was developed in the early 1980s as a new standard for the conduct of international relations. Premised on a mature recognition of interdependence and the urgency of revising current security practices, common security can be perceived as a worthy objective and as an organising principle for planning national policies and multinational efforts that contribute to a safer global community. See the Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues, Common Security: A Blueprint for Survival, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982).

40 H. Peter Langille, “Sustainable Common Security”, Mondial, December 5, 2016 Available:

41 See, Johan Galtung, “Twenty-Five Years of Peace Research: Ten Challenges and Some Responses”, Journal of Peace Research, 22 (2), 1985, pp. 141-158. Also see, Galtung, “Violence, Peace and Peace Researcn”, Journal of Peace Research, 6, (3), 1969, pp. 167-191. Galtung, Peace By Peaceful Means, Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization, (Oslo: PRIO, 1996) Galtung, There Are Alternatives! Four roads to peace and security, (Nottingham, Spokesman, 1984)

42 See, Langille, “Sustainable Common Security”, web-page of Global Common Security i3. Available:

43 See, Oliver Ramsbotham, Tom Woodhouse and Hugh Miall, Contemporary Conflict Resolution (3rd edition), (London: Polity Press, 2011), pp. 265-292.

44 Ibid, p. 265 As these authors note, “We further use the term transformative cosmopolitanism to emphasize that this is not a covert name for imposing hegemonic interests under a subterfuge of unexamined universal values, but a genuine and inclusive local-global effort to determine what contributes to human welfare in general and to human emancipation worldwide.”

45 For examples of this expansion see, United Nations, “Protect Human Rights”. Available:

46 See for example, Douglas Roche, The Human Right to Peace, (Toronto: Novalis, 2003).

47 In December 2001, the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), introduced The Responsibility to Protect (R2P), which was unanimously endorsed by all UN Member States at the 2005 World Summit. Aside from three laudable objectives at the forefront – prevention of armed conflict, protection of civilians and re-building war-torn societies – R2P established a new norm for preventing genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. For many, R2P redefined state sovereignty as an international responsibility to uphold the human rights of those at extreme risk. And, for a brief period, states were assumed to be instruments at the service of their people and, not vice versa. See, United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and The Responsibility to Protect. Available:

48 See United Nations, “Human Rights and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”, UN, New York Available:

49 A one-world perspective is in no way meant to entail a uniform world. Our strength is in our diversity and shared future. As Buckminister Fuller wrote, “we are not going to be able to operate our Spaceship Earth successfully nor for much longer unless we see it as a whole spaceship and our fate as common. It has to be everybody or nobody.”

50 For example, the earlier efforts to overcome slavery and colonialism, racism and sexism, apartheid and discrimination, Cold war antagonism and its arms race arose from broad-based social movements.

51 This arose in a memo by Phillip Mackinnon, Director, United Nations and Commonwealth Directorate, Department of External Affairs and International Trade, on the subject of Canadian messages – United Nations, IMU-2207, December 9, 1992. Cited in Langille, “In Pursuit of Common Security: Initiatives to Enhance Training, Role Specialization and Rapid Deployment for United Nations Peace Operations”, PhD dissertation, University of Bradford, Department of Peace Studies, (supervised by Professor Paul Rogers) 1999, p.208, & p. 337.

52 Official Canadian efforts in support of this approach concluded in 1995 with the arrival of Lloyd Axworthy as Canada’s Foreign Minister and a concerted, new focus on developing the concept of human security.

53 North-South: A Programme for Survival, Independent Commission on International Development Issues, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1980) [Aka: The Brandt Report].

54 Common Security: A Blueprint for Survival, the Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982).

55 United Nations Development Programme (1994): Human Development Report. Available:

56 See David Bosold and Sascha Werthes, “Human Security in Practice: Canadian and Japanese Experience”, Available:

57 See, Roland Paris, “Human Security: Paradigm Shift or Hot Air?”, International Security, 26, 2. 2001: pp. 87.102

58 Our Global Neighborhood: The Report of the Commission on Global Governance, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). Available in part:

59 Ibid., p.78.

60 Ibid., pp. 84-85.

61 Ibid., p.85

62 Chris Abbott, Paul Rogers and John Sloboda, “Global Responses to Global Threats: Sustainable Security for the 21st Century”, Oxford Research Group, June 1, 2006 Available:

63 Chris Abbott claims, “sustainable security is inherently preventative in that it addresses the likely causes of conflict and instability well before the ill-effects are felt.” “Sustainable Security”, Available:

64 Gayle Smith, “In Search of Sustainable Security: Linking National Security, Human Security, and Collective Security to Protect America and Our World” (Washington: Center for American Progress, June 2008). Available:

65 See, The Ammerdown Invitation, “Security for the future: in search of a new vision”, Open Democracy, September 23, 2014. Available:

66 This was not the broad active network initially envisaged, but primarily from Langille and Robin Collins within the World Federalist Movement – Canada. It remains a volunteer effort.

67 See, Langille, “Another Canadian foreign policy is possible: Alternatives to Harper’s militarism”, Rabble, February 2, 2012. Available: Langille “Austerity and war no more! How do we shift course in Canada?”, Rabble, December 3, 2014.Available: Langille, “Preventing armed conflict and protecting civilians: A defence agenda for Sustainable Common Security”, The Hill Times, September 24, 2015. Available: Langille, “17 ways to address Canadian security issues”, The Hill Times, September 15, 2015. Available:

68 See, Langille, “Sustainable Common Security”, Mondial, December 5, 2016 Available:

69 Langille, “Sustainable Common Security”, The Federalist Debate, Year XXX, Number 2, July 2017. Available:
As noted, a tentative short-list of core principles of sustainable common security included:
— To be just and enduring security has to be a common endeavor. Security only lasts if widely shared;
— Security must address the legitimate needs of individuals, communities, nations, the world and our environment;
— Protecting the most vulnerable, particularly succeeding generations, is a shared security priority; preventing armed conflict must also be elevated to the highest common priority. To date, both have attracted lofty rhetoric and studies, but too few tangible changes;
— Fundamental security challenges – whether from climate change, nuclear weapons, violent conflict or democratic global governance – cannot be ignored nor delayed without incurring higher common costs and risks;
— An enlightened long-term perspective of the causes and consequences in our approach to security is imperative. We need to re-think the implications of how we sustain security;
— If it does not help, do not do it! A key determinant of security is that it applies broadly and offers help worldwide. Rather than self-help, a commitment to sharing help is essential.
— Sustainable common security now requires a more holistic (e.g. comprehensive) understanding, ongoing reflection and commitment;
— Embracing a “one world” cosmopolitan perspective is key to encouraging wider solidarity and support; and,
— Be prepared – ambitious shifts are overdue and ahead. Together, we must aim higher.

70 See, United Nations Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, “Remarks to the General Assembly high-level meeting on peacebuilding and sustaining peace”, April 24, 2018. Available:

71 See, Canadian Network to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, Letter to MFA, Stephane Dion, December 18, 2016. Available:

72 Group of 78 and Rideau Institute, “Defence and Foreign Policy Priorities – Recommendations by Leading Canadian Civil Society Organizations”, [aka: Shift Document], (Ottawa: update, April 2018), Available:

73 The Group of 78, “Policy Recommendations From: Getting to Nuclear Zero, Building Common Security for a Post-MAD World”, (submission to the 2016 Defence Policy Review), Available:

74 See, “Rethinking Security for a just and peaceful world”. Available:

75 The Ammerdown Group, “Rethinking security: A discussion paper”, May 2016. Available:

76 Ibid.

77 See, Rogers, “Sustainable Security: Global Ideas for a Greater Britain”, Global Security Briefing, Oxford Research Group, July 2018. Available: Rogers, “Sustainable Security In the Trump Era”, Global Security Briefing, Oxford Research Group, March 2017. Available: Also see, Rogers and Richard Reeve, “Climate Change, Populism and National Security”, Global Security Briefing, Oxford Research Group, November 28, 2018. Available:

78 See, “How to Save the World in a Hurry”, Science for Peace, (conference overview) May 30-31, 2018, Available:

79 See, ‘Project Save the World: Resources for a Platform for Survival’, Available:

80 “Military spending around the world is booming” The Economist, April 28, 2019 Available:

81 The Editorial Board, “For Decades, the United States and Russia Stepped Back From the Brink. Until Now” The New York Times, February 10, 2019. Available:

82 There are exceptions within this field, albeit more progressive analysis tends to arise within the sub-fields of alternative security, non-traditional security, global security, as well as within peace research. For a recent list of useful sources see the ‘Bibliography’ in Rethinking Security ‘Discussion Paper’, pp 75-83.

83 Ken Booth, Theory of World Security, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

84 See, Rana Dasgupta, “The demise of the nation state”, The Guardian, April 5, 2018. Available: As he writes, “All countries are today embedded in the same system, which subjects them all to the same pressures: and it is these that are squeezing and warping national political life everywhere. And their effect is quite the opposite – despite the desperate flag-waving – of the oft-remarked “resurgence of the nation state”. The most momentous development of our era, precisely, is the waning of the nation state: its inability to withstand countervailing 21st-century forces, and its calamitous loss of influence over human circumstance. National political authority is in decline, and, since we do not know any other sort, it feels like the end of the world.”

85 President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address, “Military-Industrial Complex Speech”, 1961 Available: 86 Langille, “Will we get around to abolishing war before it destroys us?”, The Hill Times, May 25, 2016. Available:

87 See, Rogers, Losing Control: Global Security in the Twenty-First Century, 3rd Edition, (London: Pluto Press, 2010)

88 As Youssef Mahmoud writes, “the three 2015 UN global peace and security reviews that frame the debate have conveyed a common message: that the political instruments, tools, and mechanisms the world body deploys to address violent conflict all attest to the failure of early prevention.” See, Mahmoud, “Freeing Prevention From Conflict: Investing in Sustaining Peace”, International Peace Institute, Global Observatory, April 21, 2016. Available: Also see, Langille, “Improving United Nations Capacity for Rapid Deployment”, International Peace Institute, Providing for Peacekeeping Project #8, International Peace Institute, New York, October 2014. Available:

89 United Nations General Assembly President, Mogens Lykketoft, High Level Thematic Debate, “In A World Of Risks: A New Commitment For Peace, New York, May 10-11, 2016. Available:

90 Hans Von Sponeck, Denis Halliday and Richard Falk, “How the United Nations should respond in the age of global dissent” New Statesmen, March 15, 2017. Available:

91 See, Wasim Mir, “The UN’s Precarious Financial Situation Places Missions and People at Risk”, IPI Global Observatory, International Peace Institute, April 26, 2019. Available:

92 For early elaboration on tipping points see, Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, (Little Brown, 2000).

93 See, Metta Spencer, “Down from the Mountain, Reflections on the How to Save the World in a Hurry Conference, Toronto May 30-31, 2018”, Peace Magazine, vol, XXXIV, no.3, Jul-Sep, 2018, p.10.

94 Naomi Klein, No Is Not Enough, (Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 2017), p.203

95 See, ‘The Leap – Caring for the Earth and One Another’. Available:

96 ‘Change everything’, may be an appropriate motto to mobilize around LEAP’s agenda, but there are other related crises, driven by powerful interests working hard to negate progress on Leap priorities. The Leap’s ‘silo-busting movement gatherings’ might be encouraged to include diverse sectors such as peace and security, disarmament and human rights, the United Nations and global governance etc.

97 Daniel May, “How to Revive the Peace Movement in the Trump Era” The Nation, March 16, 2017. Available:

98 Medea Benjamin and Alice Slater, “Why Green New Deal Advocates Must Address Militarism”, Common Dreams, December 12, 2018. Available:

99 See, Jochen Steinhilber, “Shaping our future: Working towards a global social and ecological transformation”, The Progressive Alliance, Berlin, 2017. Available:

100 Silvia Amaro, “Bannon-linked group is planning a summit to rally global nationalists. But it’s not quite going to plan”, CNBC, March 29, 2019 Available:

101 The Dalai Lama and Sofia Stril-Rever, A Call for Revolution: A Vision for the Future, (Morrow, 2017), p. 16.

102 Greta Thunberg, Address to UN Climate Convention, COP-24, Katowice, Poland, December 12, 2018. See, “You Are Stealing Our Future: Greta Thunberg, 15, Condemns the World’s Inaction on Climate Change”, Democracy Now!, December 13, 2018. Available:

103 Cited by Andrea Germanos, “With Youth Climate Actions Backed by Leading Experts, Latest Round of Protests Highlights Call for Bold and Urgent Action”, Common Dreams, April 12, 2019 Available:

104 For example, see, Aaron Brophy, “Ten Examples Of Young Activists Changing The World For The Better”, Samaritan, April 4, 2019. Available:

105 Cited in Jeremy Lent, “What will you say to your grandchildren?” Open Democracy, April 9 2019. Available: According to Erica Chenoweth, “In fact, no campaigns failed once they’d achieved the active and sustained participation of just 3.5% of the population—and lots of them succeeded with far less than that. See, Chenoweth, “My Talk at TEDxBoulder: Civil Resistance and the “3.5% Rule.” Available:

106 A tipping point in a system is a threshold that, when exceeded, can lead to large changes in the state of the system. In global civil society, a tipping point may be considered a time when people rapidly and substantively change their priorities and prefer a new approach over an established practice.

107 Scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that when just 10 percent of the population holds an unshakable belief, their belief will always be adopted by the majority of the society. As reported, “When the number of committed opinion holders is below 10 percent, there is no visible progress in the spread of ideas…“Once that number grows above 10 percent, the idea spreads like flame.” See, “Minority Rules: Scientists Discover Tipping Point for the Spread of Ideas”, RPI News, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, July 25, 2011. Available:

108 Lent, “What will you say to your grandchildren?”

109 Rebecca Solnit, “Protest and persist: why giving up hope is not an option”, The Guardian, March 13, 2017. Available:– movement. In her words, “Optimism assumes that all will go well without our effort; pessimism assumes it’s all irredeemable; both let us stay home and do nothing. Hope for me has meant a sense that the future is unpredictable, and that we don’t actually know what will happen, but know we may be able write it ourselves. Hope is a belief that what we do might matter, an understanding that the future is not yet written. It’s informed, astute open-mindedness about what can happen and what role we may play in it … not assuming you know what will happen when the future is unwritten, and part of what happens is up to us.”

110 Message of his Holiness Pope Francis to Cardinal Peter K.A. Turkson, Conference of Non-Violence and Just Peace: Contributing to the Catholic Understanding and Commitment to Non-Violence, Rome, April 11-13, 2016. Available:

111 See, Langille, “UK Labour supports a United Nations Emergency Peace Service”, Open Democracy, August 15, 2018. Available: Langille, “How the UN could develop an Emergency Peace Service – and why it should”, Open Democracy, September 28, 2016 Available:

112 A UNEPS was included in ‘Project Save the World’ under the ‘War and Weapons’ group of six proposals. As noted, “All states shall develop a UN Emergency Peace Service to protect civilians and respond to crises.” Available:

113 See, United Nations, A more secure world: Our shared responsibility, UN Doc. A/59/565, December 2, 2004. Para 216, p. 59. Available:

114 For an earlier overview see, Bjørn Møller and Hakan Wiberg, Non-offensive Defence For The Twenty-first Century, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1994). Also see, Bjørn Møller, “Common Security and Non-Offensive Deference as Guidelines for Defence Planning and Arms Control?”, The International Journal of Peace Studies, Vol.1, No. 2. July 1996 Available: For a complementary perspective on NOD see, Langille, Changing the Guard: Canada’s Defence in a World of Transition, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990), pp.175-178.

115 For an overview of earlier work on conversion see, David Casagrande, “Conversion Then and Now: Turning swords into plowshares requires a plan”, The American Prospect, Fall 1992. Available:

116 See, Peter-Christian Aigner and Michael Brenes, “Shrinking the Military-Industrial Complex by Putting It to Work at Home: It’s not a pipe dream.” The Nation, February 26, 2019. Available:

117 Among the practical political steps to help are:

— Governments should promptly initiate comprehensive reviews of security. These must be independent and inclusive reviews. Each should be tasked to determine what currently, and within the next decade, will provide security, what is likely to generate wider insecurity and whether an approach premised on sustainable common security would help?
— To promote the global cooperation now required for survival, it is recommended that social and political leaders encourage progressive internationalism, a one-world perspective and policies to fast-track global governance.
— A more effective United Nations is critical to renewing universal hopes and the global efforts now required. The Organization must receive additional support and funding from its more affluent Member States to expand its diverse programs and operations.
— As the costs and consequences of the national security emphasis on preparing for more war are now unsustainable and counter-productive, Governments should encourage and develop plans for a global peace system. Viable steps to begin this process are available to expedite disarmament, to prevent armed conflict and, to protect people and the planet.
— Idealism and work for a better world must promptly replace political realism and pursuit of national power as a political, institutional and academic focus. Governments can encourage this key shift with tangible support for new lead Departments of Peace and Departments of Environmental Sustainability, as well as related research, educational outreach and appropriate academic programs.

118 See, Peter Beinart, “It’s Foreign Policy That Distinguishes Bernie This Time”, The Atlantic, February 21, 2019. Available: “The Sanders Institute’s Gathering Was About Saving the World, But It Was Not About Bernie Sanders, Common Dreams, December 10, 2018. Available: https://www.commondreams.orgsanders-institutes-gathering-was-about-saving-world-it-was-not-about-bernie-sanders.

119 See, UK Labour Party Manifesto, For the Many, Not the Few, “A Global Britain”, June 2017. Available:

120 William R. Frye, A United Nations Peace Force, (New York: Oceana Publications, 1957).